The 26th Meeting of the APEC Expert Group on Energy Data and Analysis (EGEDA) was held on 2 to 4 December 2014 in Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam.
The meeting was hosted by the Energy Department, Prime Minister's Office (EDPMO), Brunei Darussalam. Mr. Shigeru Kimura, Senior Research Fellow, Energy Data and Modeling Unit (EDMC), Institute of Energy Economics Japan (IEEJ) chaired the meeting on behalf of EGEDA Chair, Mr. Kenichi Matsui. Representatives from Brunei Darussalam, People's Republic of China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Chinese Taipei attended the meeting. Representatives of the Asia Pacific Energy Research Centre (APERC) and Expert Group on New and Renewable Energy Technologies (EGNRET) were also present. Representatives of the International Energy Agency (IEA), International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) and Brunei National Energy Research Institute (BNERI) attended the meeting as guest speakers. The list of participants is provided in the Annex.
The meeting commenced with the welcome address by Mr. Haji Kula Haji Metasan, Head of Energy Corporate, Energy Department, Prime Minister's Office (EDPMO), Brunei Darussalam, followed by an opening and thanking address by acting Chair, Mr. Shigeru Kimura.
After that, Mr. Shigeru Kimura briefed on the key issues discussed at the 47th meeting of Energy Working Group (EWG) in Kunming, China on 20-23 May 2014 and at the 48th meeting on 17-21 November 2014 in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. Mr. Kimura reported on EGEDA activities relating to data collection particularly on JODI Oil and JODI Gas. There was also a LNG trade facilitation workshop and discussion on energy data issues related to energy intensity and renewable energy targets. He highlighted that the EGEDA project proposal for 2015 was rejected by APEC Budget Management Committee (BMC) but EGEDA will submit the proposal again to Session 1 in 2015 applying for APEC support fund instead of APEC Operational Account.
The meeting discussed the following items:
2012/2013 Standard Run and APEC Energy Database
Mr. Takuya Miyagawa, Senior Researcher from the EDMC/IEEJ, which is the Coordinating Agency (CA) of this Expert Group, reported on the Annual Energy Data Collection for 2012 and 2013. He noted that many APEC economies used the new questionnaires for submission of their annual energy data. He reported on Quarterly Data for 2013 and 2014 and on CO2 Emissions Data and Energy Price Data Collection for 2012 and 2013. For the quarterly data collection, he reported that timeliness has improved but completeness could be enhanced, especially in terms of stock change data for coal, oil and natural gas. Regarding the CO2 data, he reported that 10 economies submitted their official CO2 emissions data.
Mr. Miyagawa was requested to submit the APEC new questionnaires for 2013 to the EGEDA focal points as soon as possible. Malaysia requested Mr. Miyagawa to send the Energy Price Data questionnaire so it can submit its energy price data to CA.
Japan stressed that accurate energy data were essential for making appropriate national energy policy and encouraged APEC member economies to prepare and submit accurate energy data to CA.
Mr. Miyagawa made a report on the Major Economic Indicators and the APEC Energy Database. He noted that the APEC Energy Database website received around 61,000 visits in 2013 and 54,000 in the period January to October 2014. Mr. Kimura suggested CA to improve the design and contents of APEC EGEDA website to attract more visitors.
Overview of Energy Statistics
Mr. Kawakami presented an overview of the APEC energy supply and demand situation. He reported that despite APEC's decreasing share in the world population, its share in the world TPES (total primary energy supply) slightly increased from 53% in 1990 to 56% in 2012. This trend is similar to that of APEC's share in world GDP which has increased from 52% to 58% during the same period.
Progress of the Joint Organisations Data Initiative
Ms. Erica Robin, Head of Oil and Gas Section, IEA, reported on the world wide situation of the Joint Organisations Data Initiative (JODI). She gave an update on the assessment of participation in JODI Oil through the years highlighting the improvement on data sustainability. She also reported on the 9th regional training workshop in Baku, Azerbaijan in February 2014. On JODI Gas, Ms. Robin explained the evolution of the initiative that lead to the public launch of the JODI Gas Database during the International Energy Forum in Moscow in May 2014. She also reported on the remaining technical issues on both JODI Oil and JODI Gas.
Progress of JODI Oil in APEC
Mr. Edito Barcelona, Senior Coordinator, EDMC/IEEJ, reported on the status of the monthly oil data collection (JODI Oil) in the APEC region. Nineteen APEC economies are currently submitting data on a regular basis as Peru has not been submitting data from April 2014 and Viet Nam from September 2010. However, Mr. Barcelona emphasized on the improving timeliness of submission as more and more economies were submitting within two months after the end of the month. To ensure accuracy of JODI data, the CA checks the data as soon as they are received and requests member economies to review the data when inconsistencies are observed.
Progress of JODI Gas in APEC
Mr. Barcelona also reported on the current status of monthly natural gas data collection (JODI Gas) in the APEC region. He reported that as of November 2014, 10 of the 13 non-OECD member economies participated in JODI Gas in 2014. The 3 member economies that did not submit data are Papua New Guinea, Peru and Viet Nam although Peru submitted all the data for the 12 months of 2013 in July 2014. However, Mr. Barcelona expressed optimism that these 3 economies will return to the initiative after the Energy Statistics Workshop in March 2015, the Capacity Building on Energy Statistics for Viet Nam in the 2nd quarter of 2015 and when Papua New Guinea participate in the EGEDA Training Program on Energy Statistics in 2015. Despite non-submission from these 3 economies, Mr. Barcelona noted the continuously improving timeliness of data submission.
Japan encouraged member economies to submit accurate JODI data and to make sure bunker oil is included in the demand data
Coming Events (Coordinating Agency)
Mr. Kimura presented the forthcoming events in 2015. The first is the JODI Oil and Gas conference in New Delhi, India in February 2015. The second is the 13th Energy Statistics Workshop in Manila, Philippines in March 2015, which will be a joint workshop with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). The third is the Energy Statistics Training Courses in 2015 such as the short-term, middle-term and long-term training courses to be organized by the CA.
Mr. Kimura asked the participants to check whether their ministries have received an invitation letter to the JODI conference from International Energy Forum (IEF). If not yet, the CA would make sure that IEF sends the invitation letter.
Coming Events (International Energy Agency)
Ms. Erica Robin of IEA presented the various IEA meetings on energy statistics which will take place in 2015. These meetings include the Joint Oil & Gas Conference, JODI Training for the Energy Community, IEA Statistics Training, InterEnerStat Meeting and Energy Statistics Working Group Meeting.
Report on EGNRET and EGEE&C meetings
Mr. Miyagawa reported on CA's participation to the EGNRET42, Joint Meeting of EGNRET and EGEE&C, EGEE&C43 meeting held in April 2014, and EGNRET43 meeting held in November 2014. EGNRET held their 42nd meeting on April 7 to 8, 2014 in Hawaii, United States. Mr. Miyagawa summarized the two discussions in the meeting, Current and Projected Economy Renewable Energy Usage Through 2030 and Renewable Energy Cost and Roadmap.
The Joint Meeting of EGNRET and EGEE&C was held on April 9, 2014 in Hawaii, United States. Mr. Miyagawa presented the discussion summary in the New APEC Renewable Energy Goal.
The 43rd meeting of the EGEE&C was held on April 10 to 11, 2014 in Hawaii, United States. EGEDA provided presentation for the EGEDA's statistical activities and the Energy Efficiency Indicators.
The 43rd meeting of the EGNRET was held on November 12 to 13, 2014 in Chiang Mai, Thailand. There was a discussion session for Role of EGNRET Toward the Doubling Renewable Energy Goal in APEC Region. Definitions and issues for the APEC Renewable Energy Goal discussed in the meeting were summarized in this presentation.
Energy Statistics Training Program by Mr. Barcelona, IEEJ
Mr. Barcelona made a presentation on the Energy Statistics Training Program held in August to October 2014. He reported on the purpose and outline of this training program and presented the results of the short-term and middle-term training courses as well as the course evaluation made by the trainees in each training course. Mr. Barcelona mentioned that the results of the course evaluation will be considered to further improve the EGEDA Training Program on Energy Statistics in 2015.
Japan requested participants to take advantage of the training course to further improve the energy statistics in their respective economies and to participate in the forthcoming JODI Conference in India.
Methodological and Data Issues on APEC Energy Intensity and Renewable Energy Goals
Mr. Barcelona gave a presentation on the methodological and data issues on the APEC energy intensity and the renewable energy doubling goals. He mentioned that by using the energy and socio-economic data collected by EGEDA, it is possible to monitor APECs performance on these targets. However, he cited methodological and data issues that need to be settled. When calculating energy intensity using primary energy, the current method used to convert electricity generated from geothermal, nuclear and new and renewable energy would result in economies that plan to increase geothermal energy not being able to contribute to the energy intensity reduction goal, as geothermal is assumed to have a conversion efficiency of only 10 percent. This situation might need the changing of the methodology in making the energy balance table from the primary energy content method to the partial substitution method. When calculating energy intensity using final energy consumption he noted that efficiency gains in power generation and in other energy transformation processes are not captured.
Regarding data issues, Mr. Barcelona reported that there are still inconsistencies with the data of several economies and many data points are still unavailable. For example, consumption of biomass in the household sector and unmonitored/unreported electricity generation in very small energy installations such as rooftop PVs and micro-hydro facilities. Some economies are also not able to separate international marine and aviation bunkers from final consumption and this result in energy intensity that is higher than what it should be. On the RE doubling goal, Mr. Barcelona mentioned that some RE such as traditional biomass and large hydro should not be included due to sustainability issues.
In response to Mr. Barcelonas presentation, APERC stated that it has been decided that energy intensities will be calculated using the PPP values of GDP. Regarding the RE goal, all hydro types are to be included. APERC also expressed strong objections to labeling technologies as sustainable or not as these labels could be imprecise.
IRENA mentioned that the targets should be consistent with the ones of Sustainable Energy for All (SE4All), which uses TPES divided by GDP PPP (for energy intensity) and the share of all renewable energy sources in Total Final Energy Consumption. Therefore, all hydro and even the traditional use of biomass are included. On the issue of the different efficiency applied to geothermal and other renewable energy such as hydro, wind and solar energy, IRENA mentioned that the use of renewable energy, such as geothermal energy can have positive effects on GDP, as well as another approach used by IPCC called the direct equivalent method which applies a uniform efficiency of 100% for non-thermal electricity generation (nuclear and renewable energy sources such as hydropower, solar, wind, ocean and geothermal).
Malaysia shared that there is no substantial use of biomass for cooking in the economy especially in the household sector due to easily accessible LPG and improved living standard in the economy. It requested IEA to validate the data on biomass on their energy balance table.
Brief on IEA template and EE manuals
Ms. Erica Robin, Head of Oil and Gas Statistics Section, IEA, explained the IEA Energy Efficiency Manuals, which are a framework for developing energy efficiency indicators. She also showed what energy efficiency indicators are and how they are developed. She insisted that energy efficiency indicators are key to set targets and monitor impact of policies. The economies should prioritize the areas on which additional data collection would be beneficial by capitalizing on the energy balances information. A mapping of existing data through different institutions is important to know what is already collected and therefore minimized additional data collection cost. Practices for data collection in the energy efficiency area are available in an interactive format on the IEA website.
Introduction of APEC EE template
Mr. Miyagawa introduced APEC Energy Efficiency (EE) template which intend to collect detailed information for energy end-use or energy related data so that it is possible to analyze energy demand and improve energy efficiency. He explained the contents of EE template in residential sector.
Mr. Kimura asked non-OECD economies whether it is possible for them to submit the data. Some economies said it may be challenging because of a lack of residential energy consumption surveys and internal budgets within economies etc., others said it may be possible. OECD economies were asked to send to CA the EE template that they already provide to the IEA, in order to avoid duplication.
Mr. Kimura asked member economies about the availability of end-use energy consumption data. China mentioned that this kind of data is not yet available. Brunei Darussalam has the data but not updated. The economy is planning to carry out a survey to update the information. Indonesia has no end-use data but will try to collect the information in collaboration with their Bureau of Statistics. Malaysia planned to conduct a residential energy consumption survey next year. The Philippines mentioned that the data is partially available. Singapore mentioned that some of the data might be available. Chinese Taipei mentioned that surveys are conducted regularly and data from those surveys are available.
CA proposed an exercise on end-use data collection in household sector using the APEC EE template. A manual which includes definitions of products and flows will be prepared around the middle of 2015. The meeting supported the proposal.
Introduction of Renewable Energy Data Collection in the World
Mr. Olivier Lavagne d'Ortigue, Programme Officer, IRENA, presented IRENA's renewable energy data collection in the world. He cited the importance of renewable energy data and reported on the rapid increase in renewable energy capacity over the past few years. He mentioned barriers to accurate and timely renewable energy statistics and how IRENA intends to address them. He also talked about the ongoing development of the IRENA renewable energy statistics manual that aims to provide guidance on emerging methodological issues and to report on countries' experience with renewable energy statistics. As a way forward, IRENA will keep collecting data from its members and focus on disaggregating biomass to better understand the traditional and modern uses of bioenergy. IRENA will continue to work on methodologies to help statisticians and organisations better track renewable energy development. IRENA also suggested to give better visibility in APEC statistics by renaming the category Other to, as appropriate Renewable energy or Other renewable energy.
Overview of EGNRET Activities and APEC RE Doubling Goal
Dr. Keng-Tung Wu, a representative of EGNRET, introduced EGNRETs mission, initiatives and its historical meeting themes. He also explained on-going EGNRET projects as well as showing the current situation of APEC renewable energy installation and encouraging policy. He finally mentioned that EGNRET will expand the experience exchange or share of best practices for each economy to access the enough technology to further promote the renewable energy for RE Doubling Goal.
Introduction of the revised APEC NRE questionnaires
Mr. Miyagawa proposed revisions to the APEC New and Renewables questionnaire for the annual energy data to harmonize with the questionnaires of IRENA, which include detailed categorization for the renewable products. OECD economies were asked to send to CA the RE template that they already provide to the IEA, in order to avoid duplication.
IRENA suggested to combine production, transformation and final consumption tables and to report on separate sheets the production of electricity and heat. IRENA and the IEA pointed out that biogases are collected on a net calorific value basis in their questionnaires. Based on the discussion, CA will re-design the questionnaire and send it to IRENA and the IEA for comments before providing it to the focal points as trial exercise to be implemented around mid-2015.
Japan supported the exercise on data collection using the APEC-EE template and the revised APEC NRE questionnaire. This exercise will contribute to the reliability of energy efficiency and renewable energy data. Japan expects that this template and the questionnaire will be explained at the next APEC Energy Statistics Workshop.
APERC Research Activities
Dr. Brantley Liddle, Vice President, APERC, reported on what to expect with the Outlook 6th Edition as well as the progress of the independent projects which APERC is currently undertaking. The report on the 6th outlook is generally on the model structure and schedules. The respective partial reports of the independent projects which were also reported in the 48th APEC EWG showcased mostly the success factors (Shale Gas and Geothermal Development) of selected APEC economies and analysis of the grid interconnection in Northeast Asia including Mongolia.
The APEC Energy Overview is a commitment of APERC to EGEDA and consequently to EWG. It describes the respective APEC economies energy profile as well as current energy issues. APERC reported on:
The Energy Intensity analysis which is also a commitment of APERC to EWG highlights the intensity improvement in the primary energy, final energy and non-energy of APEC as whole since 2005 as well as improvements from the previous year.
APERC likewise made a presentation on the progress of the methodology for its analysis on APEC data in collaboration with EDMC. The objective of this data analysis is to improve the APEC data which in principle APERC would prefer to use in its supply/demand outlook in the future.
There was also a special presentation on APERC's internal changes to regional groupings and its projects and reports. APEC will now include Mexico in North America (now United States, Canada and Mexico) and Latin America will be changed to South America (now Chile and Peru). APERC consulted with the APEC Secretariat and concerned APEC member economies (Chile, Peru and Mexico). All parties agreed to this. APERC's suggestions/recommendations will be adopted by CA upon acceptance by EGEDA, e.g. APEC Energy Statistics and Handbook.
The following issues were raised after the presentation:
The representative of Brunei National Energy Research Institute (BNERI) stated that the Supply and Demand outlook APERC is doing should consider a more realistic outcome. He suggested that price of oil may be considered as one factor to look into as the current oil prices is now on decreasing trends and the popularity of gas use may decline in the future. He further suggested that price elasticity may be considered as one of the assumptions.
Mr. Kimura thought that oil prices may be an appropriate indicator for short-term energy outlook only as it will address immediate results of the current issues. Meanwhile, for long- term outlook, the price of oil may need to be projected also which might be difficult. If ever the price assumptions is considered it may vary to specific economy, depending on the economic situation of the economy as oil price may not be elastic to the energy demand in some economy.
A related oil price issue was raised in relation to shale gas use as eventually, probably in ten years, shale gas may no longer be as popular a choice.
There was also a question whether the APERC independent projects will be interrelated to the 6th Outlook edition's assumptions. The independent projects are not designed to feed into the Outlook.
In addition there was a query about whether the 6th Outlook includes energy intensity improvement projections. In particular whether individuals sectors will be analyzed to see which ones need improvement, because the energy Ministers will probably prefer for this to be included in the Outlook in the future. Dr. Liddle explained that transport models and electricity models would address the energy intensity concerns.
Mr. Kimura reiterated the importance of the end use demand questionnaire which EGEDA requested the members to provide, which will help assess the energy efficiency improvement in the demand sector.
Japan appreciated APERC's studies including the APEC Energy Outlook, Peer Review on Energy Efficiency (PREE), Low Carbon Model Town (LCMT), and the APEC Energy Overview. The results of these studies will contribute to the basis for appropriate energy policies. In this regard, Japan expected EGEDA to support APERC through providing quality energy data.
EGEDA project proposal for funding from the APEC Support Fund for 2015 and 2016
Mr. Kimura reported that EGEDA's proposal for 2015 had been rejected at Session 2 of the Budget Management Committee (BMC) and there was no Session 3 in 2014. He said that CA will again submit its proposal to Session 1 in 2015 but CA will change the budget source from APEC Operational Fund to APEC Support Fund following the suggestion of APEC secretariat.
Revision of EGEDA TOR
APERC's position within APEC has been restructured out from under EGEDA's ambit, to under EWG's ambit. This necessitates revisions to EGEDA's TOR. Mr. Kimura showed participants a revised draft of the EGEDA TOR, to maintain consistency with APERC's TOR and in order to obtain participants' comments. Through constructive discussion, the meeting heard from attending economies their views on the revisions to EGEDA's TOR. Participants tentatively agreed to make these amendments, which have yet to be officially endorsed by each economy. The revised TOR will require finalization through approval from all economies, not just those present at the meeting, and also APERC.
Republishing APEC Energy Database proposed by Bloomberg
Mr. Kimura briefed on Bloomberg's request to be allowed to distribute APEC Energy Data especially oil and gas data over Bloomberg's services. He said that the data in the APEC Energy database is the official data being submitted by APEC economies on an official basis. The meeting agreed to decline Bloomberg's request.
Election of EGEDA Chair and Assignment of Vice-Chair
Due to continuous sickness of Mr. Kenichi Matsui, current EGEDA Chair, the meeting elected Mr. Shigeru Kimura as new Chair of EGEDA. The meeting also agreed to assign Chinese Taipei as new Vice-Chair of EGEDA replacing Australia due to its withdrawal from its Vice-Chair position in its letter to Mr. Matsui.
EGEDA members expressed their heartfelt thanks to Mr. Matsui for his long service and contribution to EGEDA. The meeting also agreed to award Mr. Matsui a certificate of appreciation in recognition for his leadership and guidance as Chair of EGEDA for 24 years.
Chinese Taipei offered to host the 27th EGEDA Meeting in October 2015. The delegates welcomed the offer.
The Philippines noted, however, as the 12th Energy Ministers Meeting (EMM12) in the Philippines will be held at the same time as the proposed time for the 27th EGEDA Meeting, Chinese Taipei is requested to consider scheduling the meeting at another time.
A draft of the summary record was discussed and adopted after amendments.
The Chair expressed on behalf of all participants appreciation and thanks to the Energy Department, Prime Ministers Office, Brunei Darussalam (EDPMO).